EAR - Causes of Facial Palsy

Enumerate the causes of facial palsy.

Aetiological classification of facial palsy is as under:

I. Birth:
1. Moulding
2. Forceps delivery
3. Mobius syndrome

II. Trauma:
1. Skull base fracture
2. Facial injuries
3. Penetrating injury to middle ear
4. Barotrauma

III. Neurological:
1. Opercular syndrome : Cortical lesion in facial motor area.
2. Millard-Gublor syndrome

IV. Infectious:
1. Otitis Externa
2. Otitis Media
3. Chronic suppurative otitis media. (cholesteatoma)
4. Herpes zoster cephalicus – (Ramsay –Hunt Syndrome)
5. Encephalitis
6. Poliomyelitis
7. Mucormycosis
8. AIDS

V. Metabolic:
1. Diabetes mellitus
2. Hyperthyroidism
3. Acute porphyria

VI. Neoplastic:
1. Parotid tumours
2. Glomus Jugulare tumour
3. Meningioma
4. Schwannoma
5. Facial nerve tumours
6. Fibrous dysplasia

VII.Toxic / Poisoning:
1. Thalidomide
2. Ethylene glycol
3. Alcoholism
4. Carbon-Monoxide poisoning

VIII. Iatrogenic:
1. Mastoid surgery
2. Parotid surgery
3. Mandibular block anaesthesia
4. Embolization

IX. Idiopathic:
1. Bell's palsy
2. Melkersson – Rosenthal syndrome
3. Landry – Guillain-Barre syndrome
4. Myasthenia gravis
5. Amyloidosis
6. Temporal arteritis



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