What is AIDS?
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the retrovirus called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The virus causes severe immunodeficiency by attacking the CD4lymphocytes.
What are the routes of transmission of AIDS?
Common routes of transmission:
1) Unprotected sexual contact
2) Use of infected needles, razors.
3) Blood transfusion by infected blood
4) Perinatal infection
How AIDS is diagnosed?
Diagnosis: Diagnosis made by the ELISA test and confirmation made by Westernblot analysis.
Incidence in ENT: 41% to 68% of all HIV patient do present with
ENT manifestations at some point of time.
What are clinical manifestations of AIDS in ENT?
1) Oropharyngeal manifestations:
a) Oral ulcerations: Due to viruses such as herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus
b) Oral candidiasis.
c) Oral hairy leukoplakia
2) Neoplastic: Mucosal Kaposi's sarcoma.
a) Hoarseness of voice
c) Tuberculous infection of the larynx
d) Laryngeal histoplasmosis
e) Laryngeal candidiasis.
Nasal and sinus manifestations:
Patients with HIV often present with nasal obstruction or irritation. Other manifestations include.
a) Nasopharyngeal lymphoid hypertrophy in early stages of HIV
b) Neoplastic tumours of the sinuses, like mucosal kaposi's sarcoma and non- Hodgkin's lymphoma
c) Recurrent acute and chronic sinusitis
d) Allergic fungal sinusitis
5) Otologic manifestations :
a) Otitis externa
b) Ear polyps
c) Kaposi's sarcoma of external ear
d) Otitis media
e) Sensorineural hearing loss
f) Ramsay Hunl syndrome
g) Isolated facial nerve paralysis
6) Head and neck manifestations :
a) Lymphadenopathy is the most common finding in HIV
b) Recurrent parotid enlargement.
c) Neck abscess
d) Neoplastic masses such as lymphomas.
What is the treatment of AIDS?
1) Anti - HIV drugs.
4) Symptomatic treatment.