THROAT - Dental cyst

Syndrome : Periapical or radicular cyst or periodontal cyst.

Characteristics :
a) Commonest cyst of the alveolus
b) Unilocular cyst arising in connection with normally erupted but
chronically infected and decayed or pulpless tooth.

What are clinical feature of Dental Cyst?

Clinical Features:
a) Chronic periodontal infection
b) An infective granuloma in relation to the infected root of tooth is the starling point
c) The chronic inflammation associated with infected tooth stimulates epithelial nests or debris or epithelial proliferation.
d) The proliferated epithelium and granuloma undergoes degeneration to form a simple cyst
e) Benign

Gross pathology:
a) Unilocular cyst with the apex of related tooth attached to outer wall of cyst.
b) Lining of the cysts : Stratified squamous epithelium.
c) Content: Usually sterile on culture with cholesterol crystals.

 Clinical features:
1)      Predominantly adults.
2)      Slowly and painlessly enlarging swelling over a long period.
3)      Site : Common in upper jaw in incisor canine and premola1 region.
4)      Can give rise to localised expansion of jaw.
5)      Egg shell crackling in advanced stage.
6)      Associated with caries tooth.
7)      Cyst of upper jaw tend to extend to maxillary sinus and inferior
meatus and may present with nasal discharge.

Radiological feature :
1) Unilocular oval or circular radiolucent area in relation to the root of tooth.
2) Translucent area may have a thin rim of sclerosed bone.

What is the treatment of dental cyst?
 
Surgical: Total excision of the cyst. It is done by intraoral approach.
Atransverse incision is made over the mucoperiosteum at the maximum point of concavity. Membrane in the epithelial lining as a whole should be scooped out together with the related tooth. No pathological membrane must be left behind as it has ameloblastomatous potential.

 



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