What is a Thyroglossal cyst?
It is regarded as tubulodermoid arising from the persistent patent portion of the thyroglossal duct. Commonest midline swelling of neck during childhood and adolescent.
What is the pathology of Thyroglossal cyst?
Lining of cyst wall : Columnar epithelium sometimes squamous or cuboidal epithelium.
Contents : Transparent jelly like material with cholesterol crystals.
It is connected to the foramen caecum by remains of thyroglossal duct.
Sites : Anywhere between base of tongue and thyroid isthmus.
a) Subhyoid (most common)
c) Region of thyroid cartilage
d) At level of cricoid cartilage
e) Floor of mouth
f) In substance of tongue
What are the clinical features of thyroglossal cyst?
a) Majority between 15-30 years of age
b) Patient may present with a painless lump near the midline of neck
a) A swelling at the lower border of hyoid in midline or usually a little to the
b) Along long axis of neck
c) Overlying skin is free and normal is colour
b) Transillumination : Rarely positive
c) Swelling moves with deglutition and protrusion of tongue
what are complications of thyroglossal cyst?
l) Recurrent infections when swelling increases in size and becomes painful
What is the treatment of thyroglossal cyst?
Sistrunk’s operation : Total excision of cyst or fistula with removal of central portion of the hyoid bone.