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  • Cancer of the Larynx: It is one of the most important malignancy (cancer) of head and neck.

  • Cervical Lymphadenopathy: Understanding the causes and treatment of cervical lymph node swelling.

  • Difficulty in Swallowing: Understanding the different causes of difficulty in swallowing.

  • Foreign Body in Bronchus: Usually children below 3 years of age are most commonly affected.

  • Foreign Body in Oesophagus: Understanding all about ingested foreign bodies.

  • Hoarseness of Voice: A breathy and harsh voice resulting due to an abnormality in the larynx (voice box).

  • Laryngeal Vocal Cord Palsy: Vocal cord palsy commonly gives a rough or husky coice.

  • Laryngeal Vocal Nodules: Vocal nodules occur due to overtaxing and incorrect use of the voice.

  • Oral Leukoplakia: An unclassified white patch or plaque inside the oral cavity.

  • Respiratory Obstruction - Stridor: Stridor is the noisy respiration due to obstruction of the air in and out of the lower respiratory tract.

  • Salivary Gland - Parotid Tumours: 80% of parotid (salivary gland) tumours are benign in nature.

  • Tonsillitis: Infection of the tonsils (tonsillitis) is one of the most common pathology in the oral cavity.
  • Waldeyer's ring : Waldeyer’s ring is a complete ring of subepithelial lymphoid tissue present in and comprising of palatine tonsils, adenoids, lingual tonsils, tubal tonsils and the pharynx.
  • Tonsillectomy:When should we do TONSILLECTOMY? When should we do
  • Peritonsillar abscess-quinsy: A peritonsillar abscess is collection of pus between the fibrous capsule of tonsillar upper pole and the superior constrictor muscle of the pharynx.
  • Ludwig’s angina: Chronic tonsillitis results in collection of calcareous or gritty particles in the center of caseous plugs filling the crypts of the tonsil called Tonsillolith.
  • Tonsillar keratosis: Tonsillar keratosis is characterized by appearance of multiple white projections from cryptal orifices of1he tonsil, lymph follicles, the posterior and the lateral pharyngeal walls, posterior part of the tongue and glossa-epiglottic fold.
  • Faucial diphtheria:Diphtheria is an infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheria, a gram positive bacillus.The incidence of this disease has drastically reduced after the immunization programme.
  • Vincent’s angina:This is an acute ulcerative type of tonsillitis and gingivitis. Vincent first described this disease and its organism
  • Retropharyngeal abscess: It is a condition that occurs due to infection and suppuration of the retropharyngeal lymph nodes in the neck area
  • Thyroglissal cyst:It is regarded as tubulodermoid arising from the persistent patent portion of the thyroglossal duct. Commonest midline swelling of neck during childhood and adolescent.
  • Burkitt’s tumour: Synonym : Malignant Lymphoma of Africa
  • Cystic hygroma:This is a congenital malformation affecting the lymphatic channel and arises from 'embryonic lakes' which are precursors of adult lymph channels.
  • Branchial cyst:Cystic swelling arising in connection with persistent portion of a part or whole of ectoderm lined cervical sinus.
  • Ranula:The term Ranula is derived from the Latin word Rana meaning frog
    belly. The cyst looks like belly of a frog.
  • Dental cyst: Periapical or radicular cyst or periodontal cyst.
  • Cold abscess:Slowly progressing non-reacting (hence white and cold instead of hyperaemic and hot) and low tension (so painless) abscess resulting from caseation is called cold abscess.
  • Hasimoto’s thyroiditis:Common autoimmune disorder seen predominantly in women. Considered to be autoimmune since it coexists with other autoimmune conditions and is associated with presence of anti-thyroid antibodies in the serum.
  • Chronic laryngitis:What is Aetiology of Chronic Laryngitis.
  • Left vocal cord palsy:The left recurrent laryngeal nerve travels a similar course to the right except that it travels deep into the thorax.
  • Juvenile laryngeal papilloma:MacKenzie firsl described this condition 100 years ago.
    These papillomas affect not only the larynx, but other areas of the respiratory tract, Hence they are also called recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.
  • Laryngomalacia:It is an excessive flaccidity of the supraglottic portion of the larynx and is one of the cause of congenital stridor.
  • Laryngeal oedema:Oedema of the laryngeal mucosa can accompany any inflammatory reaction of the larynx and is therefore, not a specific disease but a sign.
  • Laryngocoele:These are air filled cystic swellings lined by columnar ciliated epithelium.
  • Post-Laryngectomy speech:The normal larynx produces an undifferentiated sound, which is moulded into intelligible speech by movements and positions of soft palate, tips, teeth and mandible.
  • Tracheostomy:Tracheostomy is making an opening on the anterior wall of the trachea for  establishing an airway.
  • Bronchoscopy:Bronchoscopy is the examination of the tracheobronchial tree by an instrument called the bronchoscope.
  • Rigid oesophagoscopy: Infection of the tonsils (tonsillitis) is one of the most common pathology in the oral cavity.
  • Tonsillitis: Infection of the tonsils (tonsillitis) is one of the most common pathology in the oral cavity.
  • Oesophageal strictures: Oesophageal strictures can be divided into..?
  • Cardiospasm:Failure of the lower oesophageal sphincter to relax resulting in dilatation and hypertrophy of oesophagus without any demonstrable obstructive lesion.
  • Branches of external carotid artery:The common carotid artery develops from the proximal portion of the third aortic arch. The distal portion of this arch joins the dorsal aorta to form the internal carotid artery. The external carotid artery develops from the third aortic arch.
  • Aids in ENT: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the retrovirus called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The virus causes severe immunodeficiency by attacking the CD4lymphocytes.



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