Ear

EMBRYOLOGY OF EAR

Embryology is the study of the origin and development of a single individual embryo in prenatal period.

MIDDLE EAR CLEFT

The middle ear cleft is a space which consists of the middle ear cavity or tympanic cavity, the Eustachian tube...

PHYSIOLOGY OF HEARING

Sound travelling in the environment is collected by the pinna. It passes through external auditory canal and strikes the tympanic membrane.

WAX

Wax is secreted by the ceruminous glands and sebaceous glands present in cartilaginous part of the external auditory canal.

SYRINGING OF THE EAR

Syringing is an OPD procedure used for removal of wax, foreign bodies, debris from the ear.

FOREIGN BODIES IN EAR

Foreign bodies in the ear are commonly seen in children below 10 years of age.

RINNE’S TEST

This test is done to compare the auditory acuity of each ear to bone and air conduction.

WEBER TEST

The Weber test is a useful, quick, and simple screening test for the evaluation of hearing loss.

FISTULA TEST

This is the test done to detect a fistula in the bony labyrinthine wall of the inner ear.

CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS

This type of hearing loss can occur due to any condition which interferes with the conduction of sound reaching the cochlea.

SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS

This hearing loss results due to involvement of the cochlea, vestibulocochlear nerve or central auditory pathways.

PURE TONE AUDIOMETRY

This test gives a qualitative and quantitative analysis of patients hearing. The frequency range tested in 125 Hz to 8000 Hz.

ACUTE OTITIS MEDIA

It is an Acute infection affecting the mucosal lining of the middle ear cleft and the mastoid air-cell system.

SEROUS OTITIS MEDIA

This condition is characterized by the presence of non-purulent fluid in the middle ear cleft.

MYRINGOTOMY

It is an incision made on the tympanic membrane to drain out suppurative or non-suppurative middle ear effusion.

ACUTE MASTOIDITIS

Acute mastoiditis is a complication of acute suppurative otitis media, where the infection spreads from the mucosal lining of the antrum to involve the bony walls of the mastoid air system.

BEZOLD’S ABSCESS

It is a complication of acute mastoiditis when the disease passes inferiorly through the medial aspect of the mastoid tip into the sheath of sternomastoid muscle.

CHRONIC OTITIS MEDIA

Chronic otitis media is the permanent abnormality of the Pars Tensa or Pars Flaccida due to previous otitis media with effusion, negative middle ear pressure or acute suppurative otitis media.

CHOLESTEATOMA

Cholesteatoma is the presence of squamous epithelial pocket or sac, filled with keratin debris within the middle ear cleft.

COMPLICATIONS OF CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA

Complications are usually seen in Active Squamosal type of COM with Cholesteatoma.

CAUSES OF FACIAL PARALYSIS

I. Central II. Intracranial part (Cerebellopontine angle) III. Intratemporal part

MACEWEN’S TRIANGLE

This triangle is the most important surgical landmark for the mastoid antrum or the largest mastoid air cell.

TYPES OF TYMPANOPLASTY

Tympanoplasty is a surgery to eradicate disease in the middle ear cleft and to re- construct the hearing mechanism....

OSSICULOPLASTY

Ossiculoplasty is the reconstruction of the middle ear ossicular chain which has been disrupted or destroyed....

MASTOIDECTOMY

Mastoidectomy is a surgery performed to eradicate the disease present in the middle ear cleft, the mastoid air cells and the attic.

BELL'S PALSY

Bell's palsy is the most common type of peripheral, unilateral, infranuclear and idiopathic paralysis of the facial nerve.

OTOSCLEROSIS

Otosclerosis is a hereditary localized disease originating from the otic capsule in which mature lamellar bone is removed by osteoclasts...

OTOTOXICITY

The tendency of certain therapeutic agents to cause functional impairment and cellular degeneration of the end-organs...

MÉNIÈRE’S DISEASE

In 1861 Prosper Meniere described a condition characterized by sudden spontaneous episodes of vertigo, nausea, vomiting and fluctuating hearing loss.

BRAINSTEM EVOKED RESPONSE AUDIOMETRY (BERA)

Brainstem Evoked Response Audiometry (BERA) is an objective electrophysiological test measuring response in the brain waves that are stimulated...

HEARING AIDS

A hearing aid is a device which amplifies the sound and thus improves the hearing.

COCHLEAR IMPLANTS

Cochlear implants are surgically placed electrical device that receive sound and transmit the resulting electrical signals to electrodes implanted in the cochlea of the ear.

TINNITUS

Tinnitus is defined as a sound perceived more than five minutes at a time in the absence of any external acoustic...

VERTIGO

Vertigo refers to a specific symptom describing a false sense of motion, usually spinning or rotatory....

COCHLEAR IMPLANTS

Cochlear implants are surgically placed electrical device that receive sound and transmit the resulting electrical signals to electrodes implanted in the cochlea of the ear.

TINNITUS

Tinnitus is defined as a sound perceived more than five minutes at a time in the absence of any external acoustic...

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