THROAT - Aids in ENT

What is AIDS?

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the retrovirus called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The virus causes severe immunodeficiency by attacking the CD4lymphocytes.

What are the routes of transmission of AIDS?

Common routes of transmission:
1) Unprotected sexual contact
2) Use of infected needles, razors.
3) Blood transfusion by infected blood
4) Perinatal infection

How AIDS is diagnosed?

Diagnosis: Diagnosis made by the ELISA test and confirmation made by Westernblot analysis.

Incidence in ENT: 41% to 68% of all HIV patient do present with
ENT manifestations at some point of time.

What are clinical manifestations of AIDS in ENT?

Clinical manifestation:
1) Oropharyngeal manifestations:
a) Oral ulcerations: Due to viruses such as herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus
b) Oral candidiasis.
c) Oral hairy leukoplakia

2) Neoplastic: Mucosal Kaposi's sarcoma.

Laryngeal Manifestations:
a) Hoarseness of voice
b) Dysphagia.
c) Tuberculous infection of the larynx
d) Laryngeal histoplasmosis
e) Laryngeal candidiasis.


Nasal and sinus manifestations:
Patients with HIV often present with nasal obstruction or irritation. Other manifestations include.
a) Nasopharyngeal lymphoid hypertrophy in early stages of HIV
b) Neoplastic tumours of the sinuses, like mucosal kaposi's sarcoma and non- Hodgkin's lymphoma
c) Recurrent acute and chronic sinusitis
d) Allergic fungal sinusitis
5) Otologic manifestations :
a) Otitis externa
b) Ear polyps
c) Kaposi's sarcoma of external ear
d) Otitis media
e) Sensorineural hearing loss
f) Ramsay Hunl syndrome
g) Isolated facial nerve paralysis

6) Head and neck manifestations :
a) Lymphadenopathy is the most common finding in HIV
infected patients.
b) Recurrent parotid enlargement.
c) Neck abscess
d) Neoplastic masses such as lymphomas.

What is the treatment of AIDS?

1) Anti - HIV drugs.
2) Antibiotics
3) Antifungals.
4) Symptomatic treatment.

Bombay Hospital and Medical Research Center
201, 2nd Floor, New Wing 12,
New Marine Lines
Mumbai - 400020
Contact Phone No: 91-022-25283707 Contact Mob No: 07715050774

Juvekars Nursing Home
17/18, Shivsagar CHS
Opposite Akbarallys,
Off Sion Trombay Road
Chembur East, Mumbai -71
Tel: +91-22-25271140

For any suggestions. Please mail at:

Topic on Noise Pollutions By Dr.Meenesh Juvekar ON AIR 93.5 Red FM With RJ Malishka

Topic on Coughing By Dr.Meenesh Juvekar ON AIR FM GOLD

Topic on Snoring Problems By Dr.Meenesh Juvekar ON AIR FM GOLD