THROAT - Dysphagia

What are the causes of dysphagia?

  • Local causes in the alimentary canal
  • Local causes outside alimentary canal
  • Distant causes

I. Local causes in the alimentary canal:

Acute and painful:

  • Acute inflammation of mouth
  • Carcinoma posterior 2/3rd tongue
  • Acute tonsillitis, quinsy, acute, laryngitis
  • Acute oesophagitis, reflux oesophagitis, peptic ulcer of oesophagus
  • Corrosive injuries by ingestion of corrossive fluids.
  • Foreign body impaction.

Chronic and painless:

  • Laryngeal tuberculosis, laryngeal carcinoma
  • Pharyngeal pouch, pharyngeal carcinoma
  • Oesophageal causes:
    • Localised muscular spasm: Cardiospasm, Plummer Vinson Syndrome
    • Congenital stricture
    • Simple strictures
      • Corrosion by swallowed poisons
      • Secondary to reflux oesophagitis
      • Schatzki's ring
      • Tubular strictures
      • Carcinoma oesophagus

II. Local causes outside alimentary canal:

Acute and painful:

  • Acute submandibular sialadenitis
  • Acute cervical lymphadenitis
  • Acute cervical lymphadenitis of neck
  • Acute thyroiditis
  • Acute suppurative pericarditis
  • Acute mediastinitis

Chronic painless:

  • Carcinoma thyroid, thyroid goitre
  • Malignant cervical lymphadenitis
  • Aortic aneurysms
  • Mediastinal tumours

III. Distant causes of dysphagia:

  • Paralysis of palate, pharynx, vagus nerve, example diptheria, lead palsy
  • Hysteric spasm
  • Hydrophobia
  • Tetanus
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Polio encephalitis

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